– Wesley Clark
– Widely circulated photo of the IMP Team (L to R): Truett Thatch, Bill Bartell (Honeywell), Dave Walden, Jim Geisman, Robert Kahn, Frank Heart, Ben Barker, Marty Thrope, Will Crowther, Severo Ornstein. Not pictured: Bernie Cosell.
The Interface Message Processor provided
a system independent interface to the ARPANET
that could be used by any computer system, thereby opening the Internet network architecture from the very beginning.
The idea for the Interface Message Processor (IMP) was
suggested by Wesley Clark at the “ARPANET Design Session” held by Lawrence
Roberts at the IPTO Principal Investigator
meeting in Ann Arbor Michigan in April, 1967. Roberts’ plan called for each site
to write the software to connect their computer to the network, which looked like
a lot of work to the attendees since
there were so many different kinds of computers and operating systems in use throughout
the DARPA community. Clark told Roberts
that he thought the design was inside out. After the meeting Roberts stayed behind
and Clark elaborated on his concept — deploy a minicomputer called an “interface
message processor” at each site to handle the interface to the ARPANET network,
so each site would only have to write one interface to the one standard IMP.
the end of 1967, DARPA gave the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) a contract to
write detailed specifications describing the ARPANET communications network. SRI
finished their report, titled “A Study of Computer Network Design Parameters”,
in early 1968. Lawrence Roberts and Barry Wessler used this report to write a
final version of the IMP specification, describing communications standards for
different computers, and presented it at the DARPA Principal Investigators meeting
in June, 1968.
In July, 1968, the IPTO sent a Request For Quotation for
the development of an Interface Message Processor to 140 companies. In December,
1968, DARPA awarded a contract for development of the IMP to the consulting company
Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN),
which J.C.R. Licklider had worked for years
they were based in Cambridge in his home state of Massachusetts, then Senator
Ted Kennedy sent BBN a well-meaning
but slightly confused telegram of congratulations for winning a contract
to develop an “interfaith message processor”.
The team that developed
the IMP was led by Frank Heart, and included Robert
Kahn as the communications
theoretician (later helped develop TCP/IP),
Severo Ornstein in charge of hardware (later founded Computer
Professionals for Social Responsibility), Ben Barker helping with hardware,
and a programming team consisting of Will Crowther (who later developed the first adventure
Walden, and Bernie Cosell. The requirements specification development was
led by Kahn and released as specification #1822 in April, 1969.
Dave Walden provides an interesting first-hand retrospective of the IMP and early ARPANET here.